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The_Great_Sephiroth
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PostPosted: Thu Nov 06, 2014 1:49 am    Post subject: Advice for a specific setup... Reply with quote

Alright, I have yet to enjoy Gentoo and it may be due to trying this in VBox, so I have decided to convert a recent laptop to Gentoo. The system has 4GB of RAM and a 320GB HDD. Bearing in mind that I want the following partitions separate, is there any other advice for this specific setup?

  • Build directory for emerge on its own partition
  • Portage tree on its own partition
  • Distfiles on its own partition
  • Temp (/tmp) on its own partition
  • Logs on their own partition
  • Home on its own partition
  • Var on its own partition

Based on the 320GB disk, what would you recommend? The laptop will run KDE4, but I will be installing the minimal KDE package and manually emerging the programs I want. I do not want the full-blown KDE experience. I may also install VBox for running the laptop licensed OS (Vista) virtually. If I do, I will create a partition (normally /vm) for that.
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PostPosted: Thu Nov 06, 2014 9:50 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

For that many separate areas on a (in modern terms) relatively small disk, I'd use LVM, not partitions, and start by allocating say 50% of that available. Then you can add space as you progress. Personally, I have fewer areas (/home, /var, /var/tmp (and /tmp bind mounted to a directory within that) and one for everything else).
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The_Great_Sephiroth
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PostPosted: Thu Nov 06, 2014 1:35 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

I have only ever used LVM on multiple-disk setups. I honestly never thought about trying it on a single disk. My goal, as always, is to avoid fragmentation on systems where files that don't change much reside. I keep logs separate for this reason. They're always being added to, but things in /usr/bin are only changed when you do updates. Below is what I am planning to do this morning. Feel free to tell me if it is wrong in some way.

  • <BIOS partition> 2MB
  • /boot 100MB ext2
  • / 4GB ext4
  • /var 4GB ext4
  • /var/tmp 16GB (1k clusters) ext4
  • /var/log 1GB (1k clusters) ext4
  • /usr 8GB ext4
  • /usr/portage 4GB (1k clusters) ext4
  • /home ~288GB ext4
  • /tmp 1GB ext2
  • <swap> 4GB

The drive is NOT advanced format, so the 1K cluster partitions should be fine. What say the pros?

Also, I know I am asking a lot of partitioning questions, but the reason is simple. Once I install I can only do a change via reinstall.
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RazielFMX
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PostPosted: Thu Nov 06, 2014 2:23 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

With 320GB, 100MB for /boot seems underwhelming. Personally, I prefer jfs for /var and /tmp. Also, having such a small /tmp may not work so well either (but I am no expert; I tend to abuse /tmp).

Here is my personal setup for reference:

gdisk:

Code:
Number  Start (sector)    End (sector)  Size       Code  Name
   1            2048         1050623   512.0 MiB   EF00  ESI
   2         1050624         2099199   512.0 MiB   0700  boot
   3         2099200        35653631   16.0 GiB    0700  swap
   4        35653632       304089087   128.0 GiB   0700  rootfs
   5       304089088       371197951   32.0 GiB    0700  var
   6       371197952       976762879   288.8 GiB   0700  home
   7       976762880      1010317311   16.0 GiB    0700  tmp
   8      1010317312      1949329407   447.8 GiB   0700  extra
   9      1949329408      1953523119   2.0 GiB     0700  HP_TOOLS


df -h:

Code:
Filesystem                                     Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on
rootfs                                         126G  8.2G  112G   7% /
PARTUUID=d9a277e4-e84e-423c-996c-aa540f742e0e  126G  8.2G  112G   7% /
devtmpfs                                       7.9G     0  7.9G   0% /dev
tmpfs                                          1.6G  524K  1.6G   1% /run
shm                                            7.9G   44M  7.8G   1% /dev/shm
/dev/sda2                                      488M  3.5M  449M   1% /boot
/dev/sda5                                       32G  522M   32G   2% /var
/dev/sda6                                      289G  2.6G  287G   1% /home
/dev/sda7                                       16G  8.9M   16G   1% /tmp


/etc/fstab:

Code:
# /etc/fstab: static file system information.
#
# noatime turns off atimes for increased performance (atimes normally aren't
# needed); notail increases performance of ReiserFS (at the expense of storage
# efficiency).  It's safe to drop the noatime options if you want and to
# switch between notail / tail freely.
#
# The root filesystem should have a pass number of either 0 or 1.
# All other filesystems should have a pass number of 0 or greater than 1.
#
# See the manpage fstab(5) for more information.
#

# <fs>              <mountpoint>    <type>  <opts>                                         <dump/pass>

#NOTE:If your BOOT partition is ReiserFS, add the notail option to opts.
PARTLABEL=rootfs    /               ext4    defaults,noatime,nodiratime                     0 1
PARTLABEL=swap      none            swap    sw                                              0 0
PARTLABEL=boot      /boot           ext4    defaults,noatime,nodiratime,nosuid              0 2
PARTLABEL=ESI       /boot/efi       vfat    defaults,noatime,nodiratime,utf8=true,noauto    0 2
PARTLABEL=var       /var            jfs     defaults,noatime,nodiratime                     0 2
PARTLABEL=home      /home           jfs     defaults,noatime,nodiratime                     0 2
PARTLABEL=tmp       /tmp            jfs     defaults,noatime,nodiratime,nodev,nosuid        0 2

#Do not automount
PARTLABEL=extra     /mnt/extra      jfs     defaults,noatime,nodiratime,noauto              0 2
PARTLABEL=HP_TOOLS  /mnt/hptools    vfat    defaults,noatime,nodiratime,utf8=true,noauto    0 2

#Devices
/dev/cdrom          /mnt/cdrom      auto    user,noauto,exec,ro                             0 0


All file systems are set up using their default settings. The /mnt/extra partition is a swath of space I use for playing (such as duping an entire partition, changing its fs, and moving it back) or for temporary storage of large data sets.
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cwr
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PostPosted: Thu Nov 06, 2014 3:18 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

I use one partition for /usr/portage and /usr/portage/distfiles, and one partition for /var (which takes care
of the log problem, and all the various stuff in the spool directories). I don't use a separate /tmp unless
I need a lot of extra space to build large packages, and when I do (eg. openoffice) I emerge a bin package
anyway. I have separate /boot (128MB) and /home partitions, and a bunch of very large partitions hung
off /home containing music and ARM code and other oddments.

LVM seems the best bet if you want to do a lot of shuffling around; but I'm not sure what a lot of partitions
gets you.

Will
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The_Great_Sephiroth
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PostPosted: Thu Nov 06, 2014 6:24 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Why is 1GB small for temp? I normally use 256MB but wanted to go overboard here. I thought building was done in /var/tmp/something, not in /tmp. What is /tmp used for in Gentoo? I never used any of it in Debian, but that of course, is not Gentoo. I also only want 100MB for boot because I only expect to use one kernel.
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PostPosted: Thu Nov 06, 2014 6:56 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

100MB for boot is more than enough unless you plan on putting a rescue iso there.
The recommended way of dealing with /tmp is afaik tmpfs (and therefore it's in ram - mine is using about 4 MB right now). Building is done in /var/tmp/portage by default.
You should plan to use an additional (small) partition if you want to use GPT (either for the bios boot partition (around 4 MB should be ok) or for the EFI partition (no experience myself, but heard about 100MB should be a good start).

Personally I use on "normal" boxes just 3 partitions: /, swap and /boot - lvm never really worked for me (but the last time I tried it was about 10 years ago: I'm sure it matured a bit in the meantime). There are also the new FS types that include lvm functionality (more or less): BTRFS (in mainline and considered stable by upstream) and ZoL/ZFS (great filesystem but needs to be patched into the kernel/build as external module). Both provide the flexibility of LVM without needing LVM.
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PostPosted: Thu Nov 06, 2014 6:59 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

I use /tmp on a partition so I can lock it down with noexec,nosuid,nodev. The few Linux viruses I read about in years past all executed from /tmp (normally scripts) so I figure if I lock it down, I am golden even if somebody creates something new.
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PostPosted: Thu Nov 06, 2014 7:02 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

The_Great_Sephiroth wrote:
I use /tmp on a partition so I can lock it down with noexec,nosuid,nodev. The few Linux viruses I read about in years past all executed from /tmp (normally scripts) so I figure if I lock it down, I am golden even if somebody creates something new.


You can do the same if you use tmpf - and it even cleans itself up on reboot (as all data there is stored in memory).
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PostPosted: Thu Nov 06, 2014 11:34 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

I'm using /tmp bound to /var/tmp/root_tmp on all my systems. So build get done on a separate partittion but I don't need another one for /tmp.

Code:
$ grep tmp /etc/fstab
/dev/sda6   /var/tmp      reiserfs   noatime,notail         0 3
/tmp      /var/tmp/root_tmp   none      rw,noexec,nosuid,nodev,bind   0 0


Also I had one system with everything but /boot on LVM and I don't like it really. All that initrd crap.

If you plan it nice you'll rarely resize. And you can just boot a live cd (like System Rescue CD, which I also recommend as the Gentoo installation live cd) and resize your partitions and file systems.

From my laptop with a 256GB SSD:
Code:
# LC_ALL=C df -h
Filesystem      Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on
/dev/sda2        18G  5.5G   12G  33% /
devtmpfs        7.8G     0  7.8G   0% /dev
tmpfs           1.6G  1.3M  1.6G   1% /run
shm             7.8G   96K  7.8G   1% /dev/shm
cgroup_root      10M     0   10M   0% /sys/fs/cgroup
/dev/sda3       2.0G  556M  1.5G  28% /usr/portage
/dev/sda4       3.9G  3.1G  570M  85% /usr/portage/distfiles
/dev/sda5       4.0G  1.4G  2.7G  35% /usr/src
/dev/sda6        12G   33M   12G   1% /var/tmp
/dev/sda7       3.9G  1.2G  2.5G  32% /opt
/dev/sda9        93G   60G   29G  68% /home
/dev/sda8       100G   28G   73G  28% /home/mjoziewi/projects
/dev/sda1       109M   40M   63M  39% /boot



I went a bit overboard with some of them, I know.
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The_Great_Sephiroth
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PostPosted: Sat Nov 08, 2014 6:17 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Thanks for all of your help on both of my threads! The system boots fine on real hardware and I am FINALLY inside a Gentoo system! I must have to do something else with VBox to get it to work, but I don't care about that right now. I have just booted in and have two odd issues. First, eth0 is not starting. Second, all filesystems were checked, claiming the time was off, and the time was back by one hour.

The big issue here is that ifconfig is showing me only lo. Not my wireless NIC (support is in the kernel) or my hardwired NIC. I compiled most everything I needed into my kernel. I know, bigger kernel, but it keeps things neat for me. Now however, I seem to be stumped. The system does not see eth0 (Realtek 8101/8102) or my wireless NIC. The Realtek is listed as "RTL8101E/RTL8102E PCI Express Fast Ethernet controller". The wireless NIC is listed as "Intel PRO/Wireless 5100 AGN [Shiloh]". I did note that for some odd reason I have a single module loaded. The module is "e1000", which to my knowledge is a network driver, but I do not have an e1000 NIC.

The second issue appears to be the system not accounting for daylight savings since the time is off by exactly one hour. Or maybe it was due to the initial setup where the time was in UTC but set incorrectly. I have the following options set in /etc/conf.d/hwclock.
Code:

clock="UTC"
clock_hctosys="NO"
clock_systohc="NO"

Maybe the next boot will be OK.

So what am I missing with the NICs?
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PostPosted: Sat Nov 08, 2014 8:08 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

boot the livemedia, mount the gentoo partitions, enter the chroot, run cd /usr/src/linux;make menuconfig , edit menuconfig to include:
Quote:
-*- Networking support --->
-*- Wireless --->
-M- cfg80211 - wireless configuration API
[*] cfg80211 wireless extensions compatibility
<M> Generic IEEE 802.11 Networking Stack (mac80211)
<M> RF switch subsystem support ----
Device Drivers --->
[*] Network device support --->
[*] Ethernet driver support --->
[*] Realtek devices
<M> Realtek 8169 gigabit ethernet support
[*] Wireless LAN --->
<M> Intel Wireless WiFi Next Gen AGN - Wireless-N/Advanced-N/Ul
<M> Intel Wireless WiFi DVM Firmware support (NEW)
recompile and recopy the kernel, emerge linux-firmware iw wpa_supplicant wireless-tools , configure networking for gentoo net scripts, or dhcpcd, or wicd, or networkmanager or , reboot to the installed gentoo, check ifconfig -a to see if the kernel found your NIC's and what names they have, ifconfig to see if they are up
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The_Great_Sephiroth
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PostPosted: Sat Nov 08, 2014 10:31 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Thanks, I am fairly sure those were already set in my kernel, but I will double-check. I have not emerged wireless-tools. I did emerge dhcpcd. I intend on using networkmanager in KDE, so should I keep dhcpcd and emerge networkmanager?
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PostPosted: Sat Nov 08, 2014 10:59 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

The_Great_Sephiroth,

What does ifconfig -a tell about your interfaces?

udev will have renamed your interfaces away from the kernel names eth0 and wlan0 unless you told it not to.
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PostPosted: Sun Nov 09, 2014 12:15 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

only one of net scripts, dhcpcd, networkmanager, wicd for network management. See the gentoo wiki for howto's. dhcpcd and wpa_supplicant will be used by network manager. as we (I) try to confuse you, keep asking.
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PostPosted: Sun Nov 09, 2014 2:51 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

You're not confusing me. In fact I had everything you told me to check in my kernel checked. I built my support directly into the kernel however. I build modules for things that can be removed, like Bluetooth adapters. Things which are a part of my physical system, I build in. I did NOT have the 8169 driver checked however. I unchecked the others and checked it. My kernel is now compiling.

What you say makes sense to me about the networking managers. I will remove dhcpcd and install networkmanager since I am familiar with it in the Debian world and should be able to use it here. With that said, how do I purge the binaries and configuration files, scripts, etc for dhcpcd?

*UPDATE*

Alright, I remove dhcpcd, but I seem to have an issue. When I try "emerge networkmanager" I get loads of errors. It tells me then that I need to change some USE variables to include things like "networkmanager" and "kde", but those are in my USE variable. Am I missing something?
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PostPosted: Sun Nov 09, 2014 4:09 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Wait, I believe I am starting to understand some of this and it seems very odd. Does networkmanager REQUIRE a desktop in Gentoo? I do not need a desktop to use it in Debian. I normally install all of my shell utilities and then install my desktop. How can I do this in Gentoo?
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PostPosted: Sun Nov 09, 2014 6:43 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Do you now have interfaces in ifconfig -a output?
nmcli is part of the networkmanager package and can be used from the CLI terminal..
What profile have you selected? If choice 6 or 7 appears with an asterisk:
Code:
 eselect profile list
Quote:
Available profile symlink targets:
[1] default/linux/amd64/13.0
[2] default/linux/amd64/13.0/selinux
[3] default/linux/amd64/13.0/desktop
[4] default/linux/amd64/13.0/desktop/gnome
[5] default/linux/amd64/13.0/desktop/gnome/systemd
[6] default/linux/amd64/13.0/desktop/kde
[7] default/linux/amd64/13.0/desktop/kde/systemd
[8] default/linux/amd64/13.0/developer
[9] default/linux/amd64/13.0/no-emul-linux-x86
[10] default/linux/amd64/13.0/no-emul-linux-x86/desktop
[11] default/linux/amd64/13.0/no-multilib
[12] default/linux/amd64/13.0/x32
[13] hardened/linux/amd64
[14] hardened/linux/amd64/selinux
[15] hardened/linux/amd64/no-multilib
[16] hardened/linux/amd64/no-multilib/selinux
[17] hardened/linux/amd64/x32
[18] hardened/linux/musl/amd64
[19] default/linux/uclibc/amd64
[20] hardened/linux/uclibc/amd64
Any package you choose to emerge that has the option to be built with support for the kde use flag will be built or rebuilt with the kde use flag and building kde packages will be triggered.. If you selected some other profile but have USE="kde" in /etc/portage/make.conf the same result will happen. If you choose to emerge a package that has a hard dependency on kde (kde use flag) coded in the package or specified in /etc/portage/package.use building kde will be triggered. Under these conditions; if kde exists on the system already the dependency is satisfied and kde will not merged again unless updated versions of some or all kde flagged packages exist; in that case updates will be merged. This is better explined in parts 2 and 3 of the handbook.
The stage 3 you installed was basic for profile 1.
for wired etherne now, you can: enter the chroot and emerge -1 dhcpcd, reboot to the installed system, run ifconfig -a, determine your wired interface name, run dhcpcd <interface name>, check connection with ping -c2 8.8.8.8, check name resolution with ping -c2 google.com.
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PostPosted: Sun Nov 09, 2014 10:08 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Wow, that makes sense, but this is going to make installing a beast. In every distro I have ever used, I start by installing things like SSH, screen, ntp, sudo, lzma, bzip2, cups, alsa, etc. Then I install the core X server, then just the core KDE components, then I install just the stuff I want in KDE, and finally I do LibreOffice and extras like Flash. Are you saying that I cannot do this with Gentoo? I like minimalistic installs and it appears as though a few things (SSH for example) are installed by default already.

With that being said, I did use profile 6 (KDE without systemd) when installing. Should I set profile 1, do my shell utilities, change to 6, then do X and KDE? Will network manager even work at that point?
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PostPosted: Sun Nov 09, 2014 10:44 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

You set USE flags to get CUPS, ALSA, NetworkManager, you do not emerge them by hand. They may already be set by your profile, all you need is to sync and emerge -avNDu @world and all pieces will be pulled in.
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PostPosted: Sun Nov 09, 2014 10:56 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

if you get lucky the big emerge would happen without blockers and slot conflicts while you read a good book and that would be the easy way to move toward your ultimate goal.
You can revert to profile 1 and a blank USE= in /etc/portage/make.conf and then emerge --sync, emerge -uNDav world, emerge --depclean, etc-update, emerge gentoolkit, revdep-rebuild, emerge -pv networkmanager, take a look at what packages are slated to build and what USE flags are invoked particularly for network manager. This will be the hard way. Individual USE flags can be controlled in make.conf (globally), per package (package.use), or per emerge (USE="-X -kde" emerge foo). X kde says invoke the X kde flags. -X -kde says do not use X or kde support or dependencies in building foo.
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PostPosted: Sun Nov 09, 2014 11:04 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

You may want to emerge app-portage/ufed at this point, it will show you what USE flags are already enabled, although emerge --info will show all current settings and software versions as well. Generally, you do not want to emerge anything without going over your /etc/portage/make.conf first.
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PostPosted: Sun Nov 09, 2014 11:11 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Maybe I need to learn more about USE flags first. I went ahead and wiped the laptop clean (zeroed it thanks to dd) so I can try again after I grasp more of this. My current understanding was that the USE flags allowed you to compile support for things your system would be using. Prepare to laugh, but I had a USE variable a mile long. I set things I did not want first, such as "-systemd". Then I set things my CPU supported, like "sse4_1". Then I set flags for things I KNOW I will be installing, like KDE, SSL, MySQL, various libraries, etc.

Is this not correct? Am I supposed to set it, install some things, set it again and install others, etc? If I did do it correctly, then I will simply set it like I had it before, install my basic needs, then emerge X and KDE first, followed by my apps. That will not bother me one single bit. It is simply reverse from what I have been doing, but it wouldn't be wrong, would it?

Now, what are these "package.use" files? I assume I would do an emerge with "--fetch-only" and then set the flags in these files?
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Jaglover
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PostPosted: Sun Nov 09, 2014 11:22 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

You install the base system, reboot into your base Gentoo.
You run emerge-webrsync and emerge -avuND system to bring it up to date.
Make sure your desired profile is set, run emerge --info to see all settings in force.
If you are happy with what you see proceed with installing by running emerge -avuND world.
Keep in mind whatever you do can be undone, unless you do something really stupid with rm command. Trashing your install and starting from scratch was unnecessary.
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The_Great_Sephiroth
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PostPosted: Mon Nov 10, 2014 12:14 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

I know it was, but I enjoy redoing it, learning, and doing it again. It was how I originally learned Linux back in the 90's. I am honestly having a LOT of fun with Gentoo, and I haven't even made it into KDE yet. I haven't enjoyed Linux this way in a LONG time, and it was probably due to the boring installations of binary distros. Now I get to tweak packages for my individual systems, and that is fun, even if I hit a road-block and ask for help. I am planning on moving to Gentoo once I have the steps down pact in my head.

I guess one good thing DID come from systemd. I finally took the plunge and jumped into Gentoo!
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