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zamlz
n00b
n00b


Joined: 22 Jul 2017
Posts: 35

PostPosted: Fri Oct 13, 2017 11:35 pm    Post subject: Questionable Things found in dmesg Reply with quote

Hi everyone! Have successfully managed to install Gentoo and have been working with it for about a couple weeks now. No problems so far, but I decided to see what kind of output I got from dmesg. I found that it was throwing alot of errors and I was wondering if anyone knew what they meant :?

Code:

[    6.730176] pata_pdc2027x: version magic '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload modversions ' should be '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload '
[    6.737913] pata_sil680: version magic '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload modversions ' should be '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload '
[    6.752100] pata_cmd64x: version magic '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload modversions ' should be '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload '
[    6.754501] pata_hpt366: version magic '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload modversions ' should be '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload '
[    6.756306] pata_hpt37x: version magic '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload modversions ' should be '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload '
[    6.758330] pata_hpt3x3: version magic '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload modversions ' should be '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload '
[    6.760220] pata_hpt3x2n: version magic '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload modversions ' should be '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload '
[    6.770962] pata_it821x: version magic '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload modversions ' should be '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload '
[    6.772943] pata_artop: version magic '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload modversions ' should be '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload '
[    6.775307] pata_oldpiix: version magic '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload modversions ' should be '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload '
[    6.798660] pata_serverworks: version magic '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload modversions ' should be '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload '
[    6.816731] pata_pcmcia: version magic '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload modversions ' should be '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload '
[    6.824306] pata_it8213: version magic '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload modversions ' should be '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload '
[    6.826283] pata_ali: version magic '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload modversions ' should be '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload '
[    6.828278] pata_amd: version magic '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload modversions ' should be '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload '
[    6.837189] pata_atiixp: version magic '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload modversions ' should be '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload '
[    6.850811] pata_pdc202xx_old: version magic '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload modversions ' should be '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload '
[    6.879603] pata_netcell: version magic '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload modversions ' should be '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload '
[    6.882042] pata_sis: version magic '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload modversions ' should be '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload '
[    6.883969] pata_hpt3x2n: version magic '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload modversions ' should be '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload '
[    6.886427] pata_marvell: version magic '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload modversions ' should be '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload '
[    6.888160] pata_jmicron: version magic '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload modversions ' should be '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload '
[    6.890229] pata_via: version magic '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload modversions ' should be '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload '
[    6.947936] sata_promise: version magic '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload modversions ' should be '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload '
[    6.950536] sata_sil: version magic '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload modversions ' should be '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload '
[    6.952540] sata_sil24: version magic '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload modversions ' should be '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload '
[    6.954119] sata_svw: version magic '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload modversions ' should be '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload '
[    6.956021] sata_via: version magic '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload modversions ' should be '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload '
[    6.957762] sata_nv: version magic '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload modversions ' should be '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload '
[    6.959822] sata_sx4: version magic '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload modversions ' should be '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload '
[    6.961190] pata_sis: version magic '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload modversions ' should be '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload '
[    6.963144] sata_uli: version magic '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload modversions ' should be '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload '
[    6.965407] sata_vsc: version magic '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload modversions ' should be '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload '
[    6.967443] sata_qstor: version magic '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload modversions ' should be '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload '
[    6.969512] libahci: version magic '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload modversions ' should be '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload '
[    6.980839] ata_piix: version magic '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload modversions ' should be '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload '
[    6.983415] sata_mv: version magic '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload modversions ' should be '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload '
[    6.985798] sata_inic162x: version magic '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload modversions ' should be '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload '
[    6.988579] pdc_adma: version magic '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload modversions ' should be '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload '
[    6.996689] sd_mod: version magic '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload modversions ' should be '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload '
[    6.998952] sg: version magic '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload modversions ' should be '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload '
[    7.001053] cdrom: version magic '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload modversions ' should be '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload '
[    7.003086] scsi_transport_spi: version magic '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload modversions ' should be '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload '
[    7.005529] scsi_transport_spi: version magic '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload modversions ' should be '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload '
[    7.017342] arcmsr: version magic '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload modversions ' should be '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload '
[    7.043911] initio: version magic '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload modversions ' should be '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload '
[    7.180454] scsi_transport_spi: version magic '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload modversions ' should be '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload '
[    7.189360] parport: version magic '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload modversions ' should be '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload '
[    7.202158] ips: version magic '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload modversions ' should be '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload '
[    7.248015] mptbase: version magic '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload modversions ' should be '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload '
[    7.250201] mptbase: version magic '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload modversions ' should be '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload '
[    7.252611] scsi_transport_spi: version magic '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload modversions ' should be '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload '
[    7.254747] scsi_transport_fc: version magic '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload modversions ' should be '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload '
[    7.256725] scsi_transport_sas: version magic '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload modversions ' should be '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload '
[    7.258627] 3w_sas: version magic '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload modversions ' should be '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload '
[    7.260486] 3w_xxxx: version magic '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload modversions ' should be '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload '
[    7.262361] 3w_9xxx: version magic '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload modversions ' should be '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload '
[    7.274044] cciss: version magic '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload modversions ' should be '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload '
[    7.276494] scsi_transport_sas: version magic '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload modversions ' should be '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload '
[    7.288310] sx8: version magic '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload modversions ' should be '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload '
[    7.291691] aacraid: version magic '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload modversions ' should be '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload '
[    7.301755] psmouse serio2: trackpoint: IBM TrackPoint firmware: 0x0e, buttons: 3/3
[    7.304716] megaraid_mm: version magic '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload modversions ' should be '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload '
[    7.306498] megaraid_mm: version magic '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload modversions ' should be '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload '
[    7.309480] megaraid_sas: version magic '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload modversions ' should be '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload '
[    7.312521] scsi_transport_fc: version magic '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload modversions ' should be '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload '
[    7.314984] scsi_transport_fc: version magic '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload modversions ' should be '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload '
[    7.316869] scsi_transport_fc: version magic '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload modversions ' should be '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload '
[    7.318537] scsi_transport_sas: version magic '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload modversions ' should be '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload '
[    7.326349] scsi_transport_sas: version magic '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload modversions ' should be '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload '
[    7.378203] usb_storage: version magic '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload modversions ' should be '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload '
[    7.399536] xhci_hcd: version magic '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload modversions ' should be '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload '
[    7.401780] xhci_hcd: version magic '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload modversions ' should be '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload '
[    7.427584] sl811_hcd: version magic '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload modversions ' should be '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload '
[    7.555829] input: TPPS/2 IBM TrackPoint as /devices/platform/i8042/serio1/serio2/input/input8
[    7.600047] crc_itu_t: version magic '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload modversions ' should be '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload '
[    7.606497] crc_itu_t: version magic '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload modversions ' should be '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload '
[    7.624263] dax: version magic '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload modversions ' should be '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload '
[    7.626043] dax: version magic '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload modversions ' should be '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload '
[    7.627931] dax: version magic '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload modversions ' should be '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload '
[    7.634195] dax: version magic '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload modversions ' should be '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload '
[    7.636347] dax: version magic '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload modversions ' should be '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload '
[    7.638532] dax: version magic '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload modversions ' should be '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload '
[    7.650349] libcrc32c: version magic '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload modversions ' should be '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload '
[    7.652564] dax: version magic '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload modversions ' should be '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload '
[    7.655256] raid0: version magic '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload modversions ' should be '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload '
[    7.657888] raid1: version magic '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload modversions ' should be '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload '
[    7.660161] libcrc32c: version magic '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload modversions ' should be '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload '
[    7.669880] libcrc32c: version magic '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload modversions ' should be '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload '
[    7.675994] libcrc32c: version magic '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload modversions ' should be '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload '
[    7.678574] raid10: version magic '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload modversions ' should be '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload '
[    7.681307] linear: version magic '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload modversions ' should be '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload '
[    7.693193] mbcache: version magic '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload modversions ' should be '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload '
[    7.705924] mbcache: version magic '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload modversions ' should be '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload '
[    7.707506] mbcache: version magic '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload modversions ' should be '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload '
[    7.709296] raid6_pq: version magic '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload modversions ' should be '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload '
[    7.712053] reiserfs: version magic '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload modversions ' should be '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload '
[    7.715992] jfs: version magic '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload modversions ' should be '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload '
[    7.719468] fscache: version magic '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload modversions ' should be '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload '
[    7.722073] libcrc32c: version magic '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload modversions ' should be '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload '
[    7.733586] fuse: version magic '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload modversions ' should be '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload '
[    7.739295] atl1c: version magic '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload modversions ' should be '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload '
[    7.741699] bnx2: version magic '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload modversions ' should be '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload '
[    7.744031] e1000: version magic '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload modversions ' should be '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload '
[    7.746870] i2c_core: version magic '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload modversions ' should be '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload '
[    7.749203] mii: version magic '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload modversions ' should be '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload '
[    7.751432] mii: version magic '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload modversions ' should be '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload '
[    7.753529] sky2: version magic '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload modversions ' should be '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload '
[    7.755515] pps_core: version magic '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload modversions ' should be '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload '
[    7.757794] virtio: version magic '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload modversions ' should be '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload '
[    7.760108] vmxnet3: version magic '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload modversions ' should be '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload '
[    7.766134] scsi_transport_iscsi: version magic '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload modversions ' should be '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload '
[    7.768545] scsi_transport_iscsi: version magic '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload modversions ' should be '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload '
[    7.771062] scsi_transport_iscsi: version magic '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload modversions ' should be '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload '
[    7.777941] sha256_generic: version magic '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload modversions ' should be '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload '
[    7.780040] cbc: version magic '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload modversions ' should be '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload '
[    7.802352] xts: version magic '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload modversions ' should be '4.12.12-gentoo SMP mod_unload '
[    7.924799] findfs (2603) used greatest stack depth: 13608 bytes left
[    7.936862] EXT4-fs (sda4): couldn't mount as ext3 due to feature incompatibilities
[    7.937097] EXT4-fs (sda4): couldn't mount as ext2 due to feature incompatibilities
[    7.952451] EXT4-fs (sda4): mounted filesystem with ordered data mode. Opts: (null)
[    8.039894] loadkeys (2628) used greatest stack depth: 13552 bytes left

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Ant P.
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Posts: 5763

PostPosted: Sat Oct 14, 2017 7:22 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

The kernel you're running doesn't match the modules it's loading. Either you forgot to `make install modules_install` somewhere or you need to reboot.
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NeddySeagoon
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PostPosted: Sat Oct 14, 2017 9:25 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

zamlz,

For the kernel versions, its also possible that your clock has made a backwards step it time which has confused make.

Code:
[    7.936862] EXT4-fs (sda4): couldn't mount as ext3 due to feature incompatibilities
[    7.937097] EXT4-fs (sda4): couldn't mount as ext2 due to feature incompatibilities
[    7.952451] EXT4-fs (sda4): mounted filesystem with ordered data mode. Opts: (null)

Is the kernel trying to mount root without knowing the filesystem type. Those messages can safely be ignored or you can pass a kernel parameter on the kernel command line to tell the filesystem. Try rootfstype=ext4
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zamlz
n00b
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Joined: 22 Jul 2017
Posts: 35

PostPosted: Sun Oct 15, 2017 5:27 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Ant P. wrote:
The kernel you're running doesn't match the modules it's loading. Either you forgot to `make install modules_install` somewhere or you need to reboot.


I tried it but unfortunately, I still see the same error messages :(

NeddySeagoon wrote:
zamlz,

For the kernel versions, its also possible that your clock has made a backwards step it time which has confused make.

Code:
[    7.936862] EXT4-fs (sda4): couldn't mount as ext3 due to feature incompatibilities
[    7.937097] EXT4-fs (sda4): couldn't mount as ext2 due to feature incompatibilities
[    7.952451] EXT4-fs (sda4): mounted filesystem with ordered data mode. Opts: (null)

Is the kernel trying to mount root without knowing the filesystem type. Those messages can safely be ignored or you can pass a kernel parameter on the kernel command line to tell the filesystem. Try rootfstype=ext4


Adding the command line parameters seems to do the trick :)
Could you elaborate more on what you mean by my clock making a backwards time step which has confused make?
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NeddySeagoon
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PostPosted: Sun Oct 15, 2017 5:44 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

zamlz,

Make tries to be clever to avoid making output files that cannot have changed.
To do that make compares the timestamp on existing output files with that on the input files.
If the input files are all older, then the output file cannot have changed ... unless your clock stepped backwards ...

To can work around that by removing the output files, so that they cannot be reused.
Code:
make clean
does this.

However, a few more checks first.
Look at the date/time in
Code:
uname -a

It tells te build date/time of the running kernel.
Code:
$ uname -a
Linux NeddySeagoon_Static 4.12.3-gentoo #1 SMP PREEMPT Wed Jul 26 14:01:32 BST 2017 x86_64 AMD Phenom(tm) II X6 1090T Processor AuthenticAMD GNU/Linux
Hmm. I need to update.
If you thing your kernel should be more recent, you have probably messed up the kernel install, so you are running an old kernel with more recent modules.

Look in /boot, it should normally be empty,
Mount /boot and look again.
Its a favourite to forget to mount /boot when you install a new kernel, so it appears to work but its installed to the wrong place.
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zamlz
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Posts: 35

PostPosted: Sun Oct 15, 2017 9:31 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Haha, I didn't realize thats what you meant by timing issues with Makefile, I was interpreting that as maybe some multi-threading issue with the compiler. In any case, I did a full rebuild of the kernel, cleaned it up, made the kernel and the modules, and reinstalled both. My /boot is also mounted on startup so it does contain (what I believe to be) the correct files. Unfortunately, the errors still persist.
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PostPosted: Sun Oct 15, 2017 9:44 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

zamlz,

You must have skipped a step.

What does
Code:
uname -a
say?
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NeddySeagoon

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zamlz
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PostPosted: Mon Oct 16, 2017 10:31 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Here is what I get
Code:
Linux galaxypad 4.12.12-gentoo #5 SMP Sun Oct 15 13:39:02 PDT 2017 x86_64 Intel(R) Core(TM) i7-2620M CPU @ 2.70GHz GenuineIntel GNU/Linux

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NeddySeagoon
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PostPosted: Mon Oct 16, 2017 10:50 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

zamlz,

That's yesterday, so your kernel binary looks good. How have you been installing the kernel modules?

-- edit --

Do you have an initrd containing kernel modules?
That needs to be updated every kernel builhd too.
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zamlz
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PostPosted: Tue Oct 17, 2017 2:31 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

NeddySeagoon wrote:
zamlz,
Do you have an initrd containing kernel modules?
That needs to be updated every kernel builhd too.


That was it!!! My initramfs was not up to date like you said. I didn't bother updating it because I was under the belief that it needed to only be done once. Thanks for the help NeddySeagoon! Much appreciated.

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zamlz
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NeddySeagoon
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PostPosted: Tue Oct 17, 2017 9:17 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

zamlz,

The initrd needs to follow the kernel, if it contains kernel modules.
If you build into the kernel, everything you need to boot, so the initrd only contains userspace tools, then its build once and forget.

My initrd is from 2009. It only has the things needed to start kernel raid (mdadm) and logical volume manager, since I have root on lvm on raid5.
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zamlz
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PostPosted: Tue Oct 17, 2017 3:40 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Ah I see. Thanks for the info. So as long I have modules, every time i compile the kernel, I'll need to remake an initrd. In that case, wouldn't it better if I just built all those modules into the kernel? After reading the kernel modules page, I was a little worried using compiled-into-kernel modules vs loadable kernel modules.
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PostPosted: Tue Oct 17, 2017 3:59 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

zamlz,

Only the kernel modules needed to mount the root filesystem need to be built into the kernel.
Once root is mounted, it can read modules from /lib/modules/ if more are needed.

It follows that if you do that and do not need any userspace tools to mount root, you don't need an initrd.

Binary distros and genkernel users get an initrd as these systems provide a run almost everywhere kernel.

There is a downside to built in. Some drivers, notably USB and Wifi are in two (or more parts).
All the parts need to be in the same place. Either built into the kernel or on the root filesystem.
Trial and error is hard, its a kernel rebuild. Modprobing a kernel module to see what its looking for is much faster.

If you are building a public facing server, it does allow module loading to be tumed off entirely, which is one less attack vector.
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zamlz
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PostPosted: Wed Oct 18, 2017 5:34 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

I see, thanks for the info, I'll definitely look into it some more! And thank you again very much for the help! :D
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