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gieltje
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PostPosted: Wed Jun 07, 2006 12:41 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

[quote="fRIOUX"]
Quote:
Post it to the gentoo-wiki.


It allready is there, be it in a different way see http://gentoo-wiki.com/HOWTO_build_a_LiveCD_from_scratch.

Mine was a fork of veezi's a long time ago and has it's pro's and cons against this method.
But I could always use some help if you wish to help out a bit.
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Lepaca Kliffoth
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PostPosted: Wed Jun 07, 2006 6:46 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

The method you use in that guide is a one-shot way of making a livecd. I think it should be more like a continuing process, so that you can update the livecd source on the hard disk and re-burn it on rewritable media. Also, you keep too many useless things on the disk, like manuals and headers. Other than that, that's a very fine job :)
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gieltje
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PostPosted: Thu Jun 08, 2006 6:32 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

Lepaca Kliffoth wrote:
The method you use in that guide is a one-shot way of making a livecd. I think it should be more like a continuing process, so that you can update the livecd source on the hard disk and re-burn it on rewritable media. Also, you keep too many useless things on the disk, like manuals and headers. Other than that, that's a very fine job :)


Correct me if I am wrong but I am as far away from a one shot livecd as possible. If you would take a look on the work script somewhere one the bottom of the page you would see that it is a normal gentoo installation that you chroot into.

That I keep alot of manuals and stuff is my own decission, there are many ways to make it the way you want since it has a easy build script and is a normal gentoo installation.
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Lepaca Kliffoth
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PostPosted: Thu Jun 08, 2006 6:47 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

gieltje wrote:
Lepaca Kliffoth wrote:
The method you use in that guide is a one-shot way of making a livecd. I think it should be more like a continuing process, so that you can update the livecd source on the hard disk and re-burn it on rewritable media. Also, you keep too many useless things on the disk, like manuals and headers. Other than that, that's a very fine job :)


Correct me if I am wrong but I am as far away from a one shot livecd as possible. If you would take a look on the work script somewhere one the bottom of the page you would see that it is a normal gentoo installation that you chroot into.

That I keep alot of manuals and stuff is my own decission, there are many ways to make it the way you want since it has a easy build script and is a normal gentoo installation.


! Sorry I saw you delete kernel sources and portage and thought it was meant as a one-time-only method. Don't get angry ;)
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PostPosted: Fri Jun 09, 2006 8:37 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Lepaca Kliffoth wrote:
gieltje wrote:
Lepaca Kliffoth wrote:
The method you use in that guide is a one-shot way of making a livecd. I think it should be more like a continuing process, so that you can update the livecd source on the hard disk and re-burn it on rewritable media. Also, you keep too many useless things on the disk, like manuals and headers. Other than that, that's a very fine job :)


Correct me if I am wrong but I am as far away from a one shot livecd as possible. If you would take a look on the work script somewhere one the bottom of the page you would see that it is a normal gentoo installation that you chroot into.

That I keep alot of manuals and stuff is my own decission, there are many ways to make it the way you want since it has a easy build script and is a normal gentoo installation.


! Sorry I saw you delete kernel sources and portage and thought it was meant as a one-time-only method. Don't get angry ;)


I am sorry if you got my intentions wrong, indeed I delete portage and a part of the sources (you can actualy compile and use a kernel module from my livecd). But the source of the installation is left intact.

But I feel our guides (except currently unionfs vs squashfs and genkernel vs manual kernel) have a lot in common, so I thought we maybe should try and work out the gentoo-wiki out together creating a better manual.
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Lepaca Kliffoth
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PostPosted: Sat Jun 10, 2006 8:32 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

Sorry, I'm trying to find the time I need for the next version, maybe after that one I'll see what I can do.
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PostPosted: Fri Jun 16, 2006 1:39 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Lepaca Kliffoth wrote:

That said, the only devices you need to boot gentoo are /dev/null and /dev/console. None others, as far as I know. So delete anything you have in the livecd source under /dev except those two. If you have any kind of trouble please post it here regardless of wether you're able to fix it or not since it's valuable feedback.

Good luck ;)


Thanks! It did take me a while to try it out; not quite sure of the results yet: When I do an 'ls -l /dev', I still see everything but /dev/kitchensink there, but it did indeed seem to reduce the size of the ISO by a bit - and it still works :D

I also have a new question: Recently, when I am trying to upgrade my Gentoo installation, I get a message like this:
Code:
[blocks B     ] sys-apps/pam-login (is blocking sys-apps/shadow-4.0.15-r2)
[blocks B     ] >=sys-apps/shadow-4.0.14-r2 (is blocking sys-apps/pam-login-4.0.14)
[ebuild     U ] sys-apps/shadow-4.0.15-r2 [4.0.14-r1] USE="-nls -nousuid -pam -skey" 0 kB

One could probably fix that by just picking the right versions of both packages, but it made me wonder: Being that I use automatic login through mingetty, is there a way that I could get rid of either of them or at least replace them with something even lighter?
Emerge threatens doom and gloom if I remove sys-apps/shadow and removing sys-apps/pam-login (while happening without any warnings) does seem to break the automatic login.
So, are there any alternatives to the two of them that would be suited for use with the live CD?

Thanks :)
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Lepaca Kliffoth
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PostPosted: Fri Jun 16, 2006 8:00 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

I don't know much about it, I use autologin through kdm. Maybe you should go to the mingetty site (or whatever) and read how it works and what it needs to function. If you manage to make things work write up how you did it so I can put it in the guide ;)

Oh if you still see tons of things under /dev it's because of course udev re-creates the devices. On the actual disk there should be only null and console, I think.
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PostPosted: Tue Jun 27, 2006 2:33 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Lepaca Kliffoth wrote:
I don't know much about it, I use autologin through kdm. Maybe you should go to the mingetty site (or whatever) and read how it works and what it needs to function. If you manage to make things work write up how you did it so I can put it in the guide ;)

Well the upshot of the lowdown is that for automatic login with mingetty to work, you need a /bin/login that honors the '-f' flag. Seems simple enough, but the login that comes in the shadow package only seems to do so if you compile it with PAM support.

So I removed pam-login and re-emerged shadow with PAM support and everything works now - though I still wonder whether there is a way to get rid of PAM altogether...
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PostPosted: Thu Jul 06, 2006 2:10 pm    Post subject: Trying to switch to initramfs Reply with quote

I'm trying to switch the boot process from using the initrd that I created using your guide to an initramfs image that I made following the instructions at http://smitty1e.livejournal.com/27916.html#cutid. Basically, I replaced the binaries with busybox and used your linuxrc in lieu of Christopher's init script. Yes, I know that this approach is a bit naive - but I can already report partial success :D

The issue that I am still having is this: If I use your linuxrc script verbatim, pivot_root is causing all sorts of interesting issues. For the time being, I am starting a shell from the init script, walking through the contents of your linuxrc manually. Up until i reach the pivot_root line, everything sems to work fine, then:
Quote:
# pivot_root . initrd
pivot_root: pivot_root: No such file or directory
# mkdir initrd
# pivot_root . initrd
pivot_root: pivot_root: Invalid argument
# pivot_root . /initrd
pivot_root: pivot_root: Device or resource busy

So, no matter what I do, pivot_root doesn't pivot. Am I missing something here?

Things are different if I replace the pivot_root line with
Code:
switch_root /union /sbin/init

The system boots and runs fine; the only issue there is that I get ugly messages during shutdown: First, I get many error messages saying that /static could not be found and then, later, another bunch of errors about file systems that couldn't be found, including unionfs, followed by a prompt to enter the admin password or press Ctrl-D to continue. (I can't quote the exact error messages right now, because all I have is a cruddy version of qemu that segfaults before I get to that point; I can post them later if they'd be of any interest). The system finally shuts down regardless, but those messages are vaguely disquieting.

Lepaca, you mentioned that after adding unionfs, your livecd wouldn't rerstart properly. Were your problems in any way similar to what I am seeing when using switch_root? If so, are there any new insights that you'd be willing to share?
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Lepaca Kliffoth
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PostPosted: Thu Jul 06, 2006 2:27 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

First, I don't know what's the matter with pivot_root and can't really help you there.

About the restarting problem, it's a bug that I hoped someone would be able to fix. I solved it with an ugly workaround; I simply made a dumb script that:
1 - sync && sync && sync just for safety
2 - wait 3 or 4 seconds for added safety ^^
3 - umount any filesystem that has nothing to do with the livecd, like harddisk partitions and usb drives
4 - call halt and reboot nuke-style since everything that is still mounted is either a ramdisk or the livecd itself.

That's how I solved it. I know, it sucks, but I really can't figure out why when I reboot/halt normally everything goes to hell. I was hoping in someone's contribution but as you can see this guide didn't attract enough interest :( The next update will simply add what has actually been contributed but it won't solve the problem of rebooting. I'll post the dumb script as soon as I can.
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PostPosted: Thu Jul 06, 2006 3:18 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Lepaca Kliffoth wrote:
[...]
That's how I solved it. I know, it sucks, but I really can't figure out why when I reboot/halt normally everything goes to hell. I was hoping in someone's contribution but as you can see this guide didn't attract enough interest :( The next update will simply add what has actually been contributed but it won't solve the problem of rebooting. I'll post the dumb script as soon as I can.
It has been a bit quiet in here lately, hasn't it? Which is a shame, since this guide is the best one I have seen this far.

I would be quite interested in seeing your shutdown script; the errors during system halt don't seem to be critical, since I typically don't have anything mounted that could get corrupted, but it would still be nice to be extra sure.

Thanks :)
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Lepaca Kliffoth
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PostPosted: Sun Jul 09, 2006 5:29 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Finally had the time to fish the script out of the livecd:

halt.sh:
Code:

grep /dev/hd /proc/mounts | awk '{print $1}' > /tmp/mounted

for i in `cat /tmp/mounted`
do
        mount -o remount,ro $i
        umount $i
done

sync && sync && sync

sleep 3

if [[ -f /etc/killpower ]] ; then
        UPS_CTL=/sbin/upsdrvctl
        UPS_POWERDOWN="${UPS_CTL} shutdown"
elif [[ -f /etc/apcupsd/powerfail ]] ; then
        UPS_CTL=/etc/apcupsd/apccontrol
        UPS_POWERDOWN="${UPS_CTL} killpower"
fi

if [[ -x ${UPS_CTL} ]] ; then
        ewarn "Signalling ups driver(s) to kill the load!"
        ${UPS_POWERDOWN}
        ewarn "Halt system and wait for the UPS to kill our power"
        /sbin/halt -id
        while [ 1 ]; do sleep 60; done
fi

halt -i -f -d -h -p


You can easily expand it to get any kind of device you want but it's exceedingly ugly and I don't have any idea how successful it is.

reboot.sh is the same:
Code:


grep /dev/hd /proc/mounts | awk '{print $1}' > /tmp/mounted

for i in `cat /tmp/mounted`
do
        mount -o remount,ro $i
        umount $i
done

sync && sync && sync

sleep 3

/sbin/reboot -idpk

# hmm, if the above failed, that's kind of odd ...
# so let's force a reboot
/sbin/reboot -f


After this, you have to make sure they get called directly. It all stinks awfully.

edit: to be perfectly clear, I did some testing and it umounts everything cleanly, what I still don't know is if there are cases when everything for some strange reason goes to hell.
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PostPosted: Sun Jul 16, 2006 9:32 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

Is there anyone with mkxf86config problems lately?
In my latest livecd versions xdm starts _before_ mkxf86config, which doesn't work (obviously). xdm restart works and gets X going.
I wonder, if there should be a 'before xdm' in mkxf86config?
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Lepaca Kliffoth
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PostPosted: Sun Jul 16, 2006 9:55 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

Try using app-misc/livecd-tools, the service is called autoconf.
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PostPosted: Sun Jul 16, 2006 10:15 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

Lepaca Kliffoth wrote:
Try using app-misc/livecd-tools, the service is called autoconf.


Yeah, I already added it. Seems like it uses mkxf86config.
I use an older portage tree (and I don't want to update that often to avoid problems with newer packages), so I have to add a ~x86 to get a newer livecd-tools version with the 'before xdm' bugfix.
Thanks for your help.
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PostPosted: Wed Aug 09, 2006 2:41 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Lepaca Kliffoth wrote:
Finally had the time to fish the script out of the livecd:

halt.sh:
Code:

grep /dev/hd /proc/mounts | awk '{print $1}' > /tmp/mounted
...


You can easily expand it to get any kind of device you want but it's exceedingly ugly and I don't have any idea how successful it is.


I managed to make this substantially uglier:
Code:

grep "^/dev/" /proc/mounts | grep -v cdrom | grep -v static \
      | cut -d " " -f 1 | sort | uniq > /tmp/mounted
...


This unmounts any (pseudo-) device I may have mounted; I use /dev/sd* and /dev/mapper/* a lot and figured that this should catch most cases without trying to unmount the CD or the static part of the root union itself.

I made sure that your script is the first halt in the $PATH and edited inittab to use it for ctrl-alt-del. The shutdown process is just so much prettier now - and much faster, too :)

Thanks!
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PostPosted: Wed Aug 09, 2006 3:28 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

schneekater wrote:

I managed to make this substantially uglier:

:lol: Computer science is great, isn't it? :lol: :lol:

schneekater wrote:

This unmounts any (pseudo-) device I may have mounted
...
I made sure that your script is the first halt in the $PATH and edited inittab to use it for ctrl-alt-del. The shutdown process is just so much prettier now - and much faster, too :)


This will go into the guide, whenever I manage to update it - which will happen Real Soon Now(TM) it seems :(. Thanks!
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PostPosted: Sat Aug 26, 2006 10:45 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

Sorry for crossposting :) The following is taken from Talk page, I have the same problem:

Quote:
Problems with Symbolic Links

After "Copying read-write image ...", when, I think, the linuxrc script starts to run, it starts giving me a LOT of errors in the form : "ln: creating symbolic link `/var/lib/init.d/softscripts.new/clock` to `/etc/init.d/clock`: No such file or directory". The same goes to all the files in init.d, such as hostname, domainname, net.lo etc... Does anyone have a clue as to what is the problem? I tried to switch to init=/bin/sh instead of the linuxrc and it still boots like this. I followed the instructions on the site exactly as it is written and I fail to see where the problem is. can anyone please help?

* [mapelo] I have the same problem, and all files and directories in tmpfs (etc,var,...) are NOT write access, only read access.


Is there any way to solve it?
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PostPosted: Sat Aug 26, 2006 12:53 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

ok, I solved it by adding livecd-tools to my livecd source
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PostPosted: Wed Aug 30, 2006 3:53 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

I'm in NYC so I can't really give anyone any support at all. I'll be back Sep 2.
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PostPosted: Fri Sep 08, 2006 7:51 am    Post subject: Great guide Reply with quote

I followed the guide, and have a working liveusb now.

remaining problem:

unionfs/rebooting, I don't quite understand how to use the reboot.sh script.
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PostPosted: Thu Sep 14, 2006 5:59 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Well, I am thoroughly frustrated now.
I've been working this for a week now, and can not get past this problem.
Code:
RAMDISK: ext2 filesystem found at block 0
RAMDISK: Loading 7168KiB [1 disk] into ram disk... done.
VFS: Mounted root (ext2 filesystem).
Freeing unused kernel memory: 108k freed
Failed to execute /bin/sh.  Attempting defaults...
Kernel panic - not syncing: No init found.  Try passing init= option to kernel.

it also fails for /linuxrc, as you can imagine.

so, here are the things that I can think of off the top of my head.

kernel config
Code:
CONFIG_BLK_DEV_LOOP=y
CONFIG_BLK_DEV_RAM=y
CONFIG_BLK_DEV_RAM_COUNT=1
CONFIG_BLK_DEV_RAM_SIZE=8192
CONFIG_BLK_DEV_INITRD=y


initrd is small enough to fit in there...
Code:
mutt boot # ls -s initrd
7175 initrd


I'm using grub instead of ISOLINUX (just b/c grub is already setup - shouldn't affect this problem though, right?)
menu.lst
Code:
 root (cd)
 kernel (cd)/boot/vmlinuz video=vesafb-tng:mtrr,ywrap,1024x768@60 root=/dev/ram0 rw init=/bin/sh cdroot
 initrd (cd)/boot/initrd


the host machine is an athlon xp. the livecd environment is 486 with cflags from the gentoo safe cflags page
Code:
CFLAGS="-Os -march=i486 -pipe -fomit-frame-pointer"
CHOST="i486-pc-linux-gnu"

The kernel is also build for 486.

if I mount the initrd, like so for example
Code:
mount -o loop initrd ./tmp
you can see that the required stuff is there (I know my initrd fs is a little different than in this how to...but that shouldn't affect the problem that I'm having, right?)
Code:
mutt tmp # ls -r *
linuxrc

proc:

new:

lost+found:

lib:
libuuid.so.1  librt.so.1  libreadline.so.5  libpthread.so.0  libncurses.so.5  libhistory.so.5  libdl.so.2  libc.so.6  libblkid.so.1

etc:
mtab  fstab

dev:
tty  null  loop0  hdd  hdc  hdb  hda  console

bin:
umount  tar  sh  pivot_root  mount  mkdir  chroot  cat
and I can run sh, too
Code:
mutt tmp # bin/sh
sh-3.1#
I thought that perhaps I could try to chroot into the initrd fs mounted in tmp...
Code:
mutt tmp # chroot . /bin/sh
chroot: cannot run command `/bin/sh': No such file or directory
mutt tmp # stat bin/sh
  File: `bin/sh'
  Size: 523248          Blocks: 1028       IO Block: 4096   regular file
Device: 701h/1793d      Inode: 25          Links: 1
Access: (0755/-rwxr-xr-x)  Uid: (    0/    root)   Gid: (    0/    root)
Access: 2006-09-14 12:42:24.000000000 -0500
Modify: 2006-09-14 12:22:48.000000000 -0500
Change: 2006-09-14 12:22:48.000000000 -0500


I am testing this all in qemu. The machine is about 20 miles away, so I'm using VNC to access the qemu vm...
Code:
qemu -kernel-kqemu -cdrom ./aecd.iso -m 64 -localtime -usbdevice tablet -vnc 9 -boot d
Same result if I run qemu with -no-kqemu instead of -kernel-kqemu.

So, I'm out of ideas. anybody else have some?
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PostPosted: Thu Sep 14, 2006 11:03 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

rickvernam wrote:
Well, I am thoroughly frustrated now.
I've been working this for a week now, and can not get past this problem.
Code:
RAMDISK: ext2 filesystem found at block 0
RAMDISK: Loading 7168KiB [1 disk] into ram disk... done.
VFS: Mounted root (ext2 filesystem).
Freeing unused kernel memory: 108k freed
Failed to execute /bin/sh.  Attempting defaults...
Kernel panic - not syncing: No init found.  Try passing init= option to kernel.


... [snip] ...

So, I'm out of ideas. anybody else have some?


Apparently, I'm not out of ideas...

but first, a bit of background.
I had, as instructions said, copied /bin/sh /bin/cat ...etc to the initrd fs.
Also, I did ldd /bin/sh, copied the resulting stuff from lib... and the same for everything in bin.

The idea was to copy ALL of bin and ALL of lib into the initrd. While I had to omit some of the clearly unneeded things from bin, it all fit in a 7MB initrd.
And most importantly, it works!!

So, clearly the problem was that I was not careful enough when copying the lib stuff specified by ldd.
What a waste of a perfectly good week. sheesh.
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PostPosted: Tue Sep 26, 2006 9:07 pm    Post subject: Minor Suggestions Reply with quote

First: Great guide! This is my third LiveCD attempt. First was a failed attempt at the Catalyst method. Second was the 'from scratch' method on gentoo-wiki, which booted, but only used squashfs and I needed to write some data...and then I found this guide.

I've just got a couple of minor suggestions:

Quote:
To get union among the other filesystems you see in menuconfig, download the source and run the patch-kernel.sh therein. Next time you run menuconfig, unionfs will be there.


It's unclear which unionfs sources should be fetched from where. First I tried fetching the sources for the latest stable unionfs through portage, but there are no stable versions in portage. Next, I googled around and found http://www.filesystems.org/project-unionfs.html

Since there seems to be specific versions of unionfs for specific versions of the kernel, I would assume that you could update the instructions to read something like:

Quote:
To get union among the other filesystems you see in menuconfig, download the appropriate version of unionfs for your kernel from the table on http://www.filesystems.org/project-unionfs.html and then untar the tarball, cd into the directory it created, and run patch-kernel.sh /usr/src/linux to patch your current kernel. Next time you run menuconfig, unionfs will be under File systems --> Miscellaneous filesystems --> Union fs support.



The only other issue I ran into so far (I'm just starting step 4) was on step 1:

Quote:
I suggest you follow Bob P's stage 1/3 method...


There's no reference to who Bob P is, or where or what his method is, or even why we ought to follow it.

I'm excited to get through the rest of the guide. Thanks for all your work!
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